What is mean by Test case?

A Test Case is usually a single step, or occasionally a sequence of steps, to test the correct behaviour/functionality, features of an application. An expected result or expected outcome is usually given.

Test cases are a collection of Test specifications, Test procedures, and Test programs developed by a Software Engineer before designing and writing a piece of code. Their purpose is verify that the piece of code meets all its requirements and correctly handles all error conditions (including hardware failures). One piece of code may have as many as several hundred Test cases to verify all of these situations. After the code is written it will be tested against the Test cases. 

Additional information that may be included in Test Case:
Test Case ID
Test Case description
Test step or order of execution number
Related requirement(s)
Depth
Test category
Author
Check boxes for whether the test can be or has been automated
Pass/Fail
Remarks
Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps, and descriptions.
A written test case should also contain a place for the actual result.



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